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An overview of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer
Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Aug  2020 (Vol.  27, Issue  43, Pages( 24 - 27)
PMID: 32875999


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    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy with highly variable clinical presentation and outcomes. Diagnosis and management remain a challenge and at times become highly controversial. Novel biomarker assays have shown promise as an adjunctive tool to aid in patient shared decision-making, risk stratification, and disease management. This presentation at the 2020 Jefferson Urology Symposium provided a review of current commonly used biomarkers for prostate cancer.


    We reviewed the current literature on the use of biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment decisions in localized prostate cancer.


    Biomarker assays were reviewed and presented according to clinical application of each test. In the consideration of initial prostate biopsy the blood tests for PHI, and 4K Score, and urine tests PCA3, Select MDx and ExoDx are available. In the consideration of treatment versus active surveillance in the biopsy positive setting OncotypeDx, Prolaris and Decipher are available. In patients with an initial negative biopsy, 4K score, PCA3, ExoDx and the tissue biopsy based Confirm MDx assay can help guide the decision to perform repeat biopsy. In the consideration for adjuvant radiation following radical prostatectomy the most extensive literature available supports the use of Prolaris or Decipher tissue assays.


    With the significant burden of men being diagnosed with prostate cancer, it is desirable to appropriately risk stratify patients to avoid unnecessary biopsies and over-treatment in low risk patients and guide appropriate treatment strategies in high risk patients. Selected biomarkers presented are useful adjunctive precision medicine tools to aid in shared decision making and to direct treatment decisions.