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Adrenalectomy for benign and malignant disease: utilization and outcomes by surgeon specialty and surgical approach from 2003-2013
Section of Urologic Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Oct  2017 (Vol.  24, Issue  5, Pages( 8990 - 8997)
PMID: 28971785


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    Data on the utilization of open, laparoscopic and robotic adrenalectomy on a national level is limited.


    Data on patients who underwent open, laparoscopic, or robotic adrenalectomy for benign or malignant disease in the US from 2003-2013 were extracted using ICD-9 codes from the Premier Hospital Database. Surgeon specialty, patient demographics, hospital characteristics, and complications were compared. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses.


    A total of 8,831 adrenalectomies were performed for benign and malignant tumors. There was no significant difference in rate of adrenalectomy with regards to comorbidities, insurance status, or hospital characteristics. Non-urologists performed adrenalectomy more often for both benign (57% versus 43%; p = 0.011) and malignant disease (66% versus 34%; p = 0.011). Across all indications, non-urologists performed open surgery most often followed by laparoscopic and robotic approaches (56.3% versus 37.4% versus 6.4%, respectively), compared to urologists (48.8% versus 38.4% versus 12.9%, respectively). Overall, urologists were more likely to use laparoscopic or robotic approaches (p = 0.001). There was no difference in complication rates or operative times between surgical specialties or by surgeon/hospital case volume. On multivariable regression analysis, the best predictor of major complication was a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥ 2 (OR 3.9, 95%CI 2.1-7.1; p = < 0.001). Compared to open surgery, laparoscopy had significantly reduced odds of major complication (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.3-0.9; p = 0.03). Patients undergoing robotic procedures had the shortest length of stay.


    In this retrospective study, adrenalectomy was more commonly performed by non-urologists via an open approach. Patients with CCI ≥ 2 were more likely to have postoperative complications while surgeon volume, hospital volume, and surgical approach did not influence complication rates.