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Female circumcision: history medical and psychological complications and initiatives to eradicate this practice
Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Apr  2009 (Vol.  16, Issue  2, Pages( 4576 - 4579)
PMID: 19364430


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  • Female circumcision - a procedure where the parts of the female genitals are removed, which is also known as female genital cutting (FGC) or female genital mutilation (FGM) - continues to be practiced in more than 28 African countries. It is estimated that 80-100 million women have been circumcised. We performed a review of the literature to examine the history of female circumcision, its medical and psychological consequences, and government and non-government educational initiatives that are currently being taken to eradicate this practice.