Hematuria is a common finding in primary care practice. Causes of significant hematuria include urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, malignancies, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and nephropathies. Hematuria is identified by taking a patient history and by performing a routine urine dipstick test. If a patient has a history of gross hematuria and/or a positive urine dipstick test, he or she should then have a microscopic urinalysis. The primary care physician can order ancillary tests such as laboratory tests to assess renal function, and possible imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography urography, or magnetic resonance urography. The patient may be referred to a nephrologist or urologist for further assessment if required. Cystoscopy may be considered. Even if the patient has a negative work up, guidelines recommend that primary care physicians follow the patient semi-annually for 3 years.